Many of the notions we hold today regarding music and its role in society are rooted in ideas that emerged in the Enlightenment of the 18th century. We will begin with a close study of those ideas and the music it fostered, then follow the rise of music to its preeminent role among the arts in the 19th century. Finally, we will explore the alternative paths composers pursued following the rupture with tonality and with conventional views on music at the start of the 20th century. Works from Bach to Babbitt will be included in our survey. There will be a mid-term and final exam, and one written critique of an assigned reading.